Upskilling, Reskilling and Newskilling Teachers for the Metaverse of Future Education

Eleni Armaou, Student Oriented Services (SOS) and Additional Learning Needs (ALN) Coordinator
Metropolitan School of Frankfurt

Transferable concepts from the MIT Sloan and HBR World of Business


Last month, as every month, I indulged myself in reading the HBR and MIT Sloan Management, which apart from strictly and purely business journals, are really incubators of culture organisation ideas, concepts and deep market, finance, business related research.


Education, business world and society do not operate in silos: we are directly and increasingly connected with business research and business ideas that got in motion exempli gratia, Amazon, the Facebook Metaverse, social media trends, all those developments are influencing our lives as citizens, netizens ( online citizens), parents and teachers.We have, therefore, the opportunity and the duty to explore, know and eventually control ( to the extent possible) the developments in the educational metaverse which will be here sooner or later.


Where do we start from? We prepare ourselves, by reading, researching and most crucially, upskilling: supercharging our skills from the fundamental direct instructional tools and skill sets to more future related skills which will become sine qua non skills in the future ( either metaverselly or not).


MIT Sloan Management Review and Professor Katherine C. Kellogg in her article (2021) Workplace Hierarchies Matter in Skill Transformation argue that there are three (3) main types of upskilling initiatives: Upskilling, Reskilling and Newskilling. Let us look at their business definition.




Professor Kellogg defines it as “initiatives that target employees who need additional technical training to remain relevant and continue to deliver value. Leaders can personalise learning for these employees by providing peer-to-peer training in new technologies and related work processes”.

For educators, upskilling would mean, for example, peer learning walk-ins in classrooms, peer discussion for conflict resolution with specific conflict resolution protocols, direct instruction videos reviewing and roundtables for tech in education.

In the world of learning support and inclusive education, this becomes particularly important as schools have to build effective and research -based RTI Systems ( Response to Intervention ) in order to manage Student Referrals, either for social, behavioural, counselling and mental health issues or for learning problems. RTI protocols in schools are vital and skills related to RTi are crucial: learn how to use a learning intervention with:

1. Effectiveness

2. Fidelity

3. Validity

MTSS systems ( Multi-Tiered Support Systems) are primarily based on very good skill building of educators who need to have a range of skills, from investigation skills ( e.g. what is the learning problem? Or what is the system’s problem in this case? ) to deep self-assessment strategies.




‘’As AI-Artificial intelligence analytics and technology and Robotics automate many existing jobs, the workers who formerly did those jobs will need to LEARN entirely new skills rather than merely add to their current skill sets’’ notes Prof. Kellogg. Let us imagine educators and students in a metaverse classroom: what new classroom management skills will be crucial? How do we handle and remediate cyberbullying and what justice restorative strategies we have to use? What mental health issues should we anticipate in a metaversed classroom ? And how do we prepare for them? The answer is research, reskilling and self-assessment.

A future-ready school with future-ready educators calls for skills, in the areas of:

1. IT and coding ( for ICT Teachers)

2. Metaverse social patterns, behaviours and Psychology of the metaverse netizens (for all teachers)

3. Mitigating Cyber Bullying Skills ( for pastoral care officers and school counsellors)

4. Knowledge and skills on how to support in mental health crisis ( egain for support staff and school counsellors)

We have not fully grasped what a METAVERSED school environment will look like and feel like and frankly, it is much better and will prove more effective, if we prepare ourselves. Society was not, and to a large extent still is not, ready for the consequences of social media ( think of Tik Tok trends, Facebook and so forth) on mental health of adults and teenagers alike.




‘’When corporate leaders adopt new technologies that automate various kinds of work, some jobs and tasks are eliminated while others emerge. Many new roles involve technologies that require considerable work to develop, implement, maintain, and change over time’’.

Change in school culture is required and, as in organisational culture -related research, it means addressing underlying beliefs, artefacts ( mission statements) and instructional behavioural elements of educators.

Change on how you accept change is also another equally fundamental newskilling aspect of educators, parents and students.

Equally importantly, if not more, we need to support teachers in any potential mental health difficulties they face, in our rapidly changing world. Our times are similar to medieval times, as we are between an old world and moving to the A New one. As in all historical phases, our times are brimming with signs of things and concepts to be born. As we are waiting, we should also prepare with resilience, perseverance and future-related training, while passing the threshold of conviction that continuous research and training will make us, if not better educators, at least, prepared.

Eleni Armaou studied Psychology, Pedagogy and Philosophy ( major in Educational Psychology) and holds a MA in Special Educational Needs from the University of Leeds, UK. She has worked in IB Schools in Istanbul, Stuttgart, and Frankfurt and is now the SOS, ALN and Counselling Coordinator and Secondary CPO, at the Metropolitan School of Frankfurt, in Germany. Eleni is passionate about AI, Robotics, Space Travel, Quantum Physics as well as Human Psychology, Inclusive Education, Leadership and Management Studies, Negotiation Skills, CRISIS Management and Conflict Resolution.

She is a Member of ECIS SEN/Learning Support SIG and content creator for the LS/SEN SIG page. Website: special education and inclusive education

Student Oriented Services ( SOS) and Additional Learning Needs (ALN) Coordinator, Metropolitan School of Frankfurt


References and Sources:


1. Image Source:


2. Katherine Kellogg (2021) Workplace Hierarchies Matter in Skill Transformation. MIT Sloan Management Review Journal


3. The Future-Proof Organisation Harvard Business Review Journal -September/October 2021


What do you think about the points raised in this post? We’d love to have your thoughts below.




Eleni Armaou studied Psychology, Pedagogy and Philosophy ( major in Educational Psychology) and holds a MA in Special Educational Needs from the University of Leeds, UK. She has worked in IB Schools in Istanbul, Stuttgart, and Frankfurt and is now the SOS, ALN and Counselling Coordinator and Secondary CPO, at the Metropolitan School of Frankfurt, in Germany.

Eleni is passionate about AI, Robotics, Space Travel, Quantum Physics as well as Human Psychology, Inclusive Education, Leadership and Management Studies, Negotiation Skills, CRISIS Management and Conflict Resolution.

She is a Member of ECIS SEN/Learning Support SIG and content creator for the LS/SEN SIG page.

Website: special education and inclusive education

Student Oriented Services ( SOS) and Additional Learning Needs

(ALN) Coordinator, Metropolitan School of Frankfurt

She is a Member of ECIS SEN/Learning Support SIG. Visit the website here.


Why I Didn’t Get the Job: Reflections on leading, growing, and moving forward

Kimberly Cullen
Senior Management Professional | Writer | Author


I was a finalist for a head of school position at a small Montessori school in the midwest. I didn’t know anything about Montessori, and my previous leadership experience had primarily been at the secondary level, so going into the process, I felt a little out of my league. That didn’t seem to matter though – the search team saw enough in my application and in my panel interview that they flew me across the Atlantic to interview me in person. I was one of four candidates in total – statistically, each of our chances were fairly low. I realized that I knew very little about the school so I decided the trip would be useful for me to learn more about them and their needs. As much as I knew about the school from their website, my research on Montessori, and the position description, I had no idea whether this would be a good fit for me, and so in a way, I was interviewing them as much as I was being interviewed.


Many weeks passed between the initial panel interview and the finalist visits. Almost 10 weeks, to be exact. In that time, I had received a significant number of rejections from a range of schools for similar positions. I wondered if maybe the universe was encouraging me to find another way to explore my interest in leadership, and I started looking into doctoral programs in leadership, adult learning, and organizational behavior. I had spent the last year on sabbatical thinking about my own leadership path – a seemingly impossible climb through the ranks of an international school from intern to Upper School Director over the course of 18 years, and I knew that as hard as I worked for the opportunities that came my way, I never learned about leadership. I knew when I was inspired and when I wasn’t, when I was growing and when I wasn’t, and I understood that being challenged and being criticized were two different things. But I also spent almost a decade trying to hide what I felt might be flaws.


No one had taught me what it meant to lead, and as successful as I had been figuring it out on my own, there were so many things I didn’t know.. and even more that I didn’t know that I didn’t know.  My sabbatical year had given me the opportunity to learn about coaching, to become a coach myself, and to teach coaching to other leaders. I realized how unprepared so many of us are for leadership and I grew committed to supporting others in the development of their own leadership skills. I co-authored a book for women leaders in international schools, and I facilitated a workshop series around coaching for growth.  As I considered all of these experiences, the possibility of pursuing a doctorate grew increasingly exciting to me, and I started working on applications to several different programs.


In the days leading up to the final interviews, I almost convinced myself that I didn’t want the job. I was fully committed to pursuing a doctorate at this point. I submitted a few doctoral applications before my interviews as a kind of “emotional safety net” so that when I didn’t get the job, I would have something exciting to look forward to. As a result, the nervous energy that crept up on me as I flew across the ocean to the very cool city that this school community called home took me off guard.  I spent the next day and a half preparing intensively for my visit to the school and the interviews that would come. I felt strong, confident, and I was inspired by the school’s mission and potential.


For a brief moment, I wanted nothing more than to be their new Head of School.  I had fun with my interviews, and reveled in that I’m kinda rockin’ it feeling. Eventually, as it usually does, the time came for me to talk about why I was the right person for the job – “Things are going fine at the school right now,” one Board member said, “so if you are selected, how will you demonstrate to the school community the added value of hiring you?” To be fair, the question came my way at around 7 p.m. after a full day of interviews and a raging case of jet lag that had me awake since 2 a.m. I don’t remember my answer.  I just remember being exhausted.


In the end, I didn’t get the job. As much as I had planned for that outcome (remember, doctral applications were already submitted), I was still disappointed. Rejection is never easy. In retrospect, I understand now why I wasn’t selected. Excuses aside, I failed to stand out. And while I can’t remember my answer to the most important question of all (why should we hire you?), I know I didn’t say this:


I have no experience with Montessori, and very little with k-8 education. I am learning about both and am committed to continuing. But what I am passionate about is guiding people. I know that my own leadership path is unique for a school environment, and I have had the benefit of a year-long sabbatical during which I have focused almost solely on how to become a better leader. I believe that schools have as much potential as those who work in them, and that in order to be great, we need to build on the strengths of our educators and staff.  No one is born a leader – leadership is something we learn, and I am committed to not only growing the best leadership team possible, but also harnessing the leadership potential of those they serve. And having said that, I myself am still developing as a leader. 


I have a lot of experience and great potential, and at the same time, I bear a healthy dose of humility and am not afraid to be vulnerable in front of others. I am eager to learn and to serve – in the interest of both of those things, I will be a leader who is committed to growing publicly. I will get a leadership coach, and I will work closely with those I lead to make sure we are all growing each day. It’s amazing that the school is doing well. And yet as a Search Team, you are committed to doing even better – that is why you embarked on such a thorough search process. My favorite quote is from Kung Fu Panda, when Master Shifu says to Po “If you only do what you can do, you will never be more than you are.” No organization should content itself with being good enough, and no leader should either. Together, our growth would be seen and felt by the entire community.


There is no way of knowing whether speaking this truth would have gotten me the job, and in hindsight, I realize that it doesn’t matter.  What matters is that the experience has helped me clearly define how I feel about leadership, and what I believe is possible.  I recently started reading An Everyone Culture:  Becoming a Deliberately Developmental Organization, by Robert Kegan and Lisa Laskow Lahey (Harvard Business Review Press, 2016), and it reminds me that I have a lot to learn about what makes leaders, and the organizations they serve, most effective.


Regardless of where you work, the need for change has become the baseline.  Education, technology, business, finance – all of it depends on people, awareness, connection, and the understanding that we cannot stand still. We have to keep growing.  Ultimately, my goal is to help other see this, because in the end, it is the pursuit of growth (personal, professional, organizational, societal) that will bring about the greatest changes of all.


  • Never stop growing. 
  • Leadership is earned, yet it must be learned. 
  • Reflect, Learn, Move.
  • Speak your truth.


What do you think about the points raised in this article? We’d love to hear your feedback.



Kimberly Cullen

Kim is a senior management professional skilled in building capacity, leadership development and learning. She is and experienced writer & author and passionate about bringing out the best in people.


Touch in International Primary Schools: A Practical Approach with a Cultural Lens

Touch in International Primary Schools: A Practical Approach with a Cultural Lens
Dallin Bywater, International School Counselor


An international school community breeds a complex system of influences on touch behavior, where each culture has its own unspoken rules about appropriate touch.  There is a spectrum of high and low contact cultures (Dibiase and Gunnoe, 2004), as well as high and low context cultures (Meyer, 2014) that often coexist in a single school.  Although complicated, it is both possible and necessary to develop touch guidelines and policies in international schools.


Touch between teachers and students has been a feverishly debated topic for years (Johansson, Aberg, and Hedlin, 2021).  Researchers have written extensively about touch in the early years context (Blackwell, 2000).  A robust amount of research indicates the emotional, physical, intellectual, and social benefits of touch (Owen and Gillentine, 2010).  For example, touch can decrease aggressive behavior (Diego et al, 2002), can promote positive behavior and social interactions (Dobson et all, 2002), and even encourage cognitive development (Hart et al., 1998).  However, there is a notable lack of research about the effects of touch in an international school community where touch is interpreted from many cultural viewpoints, and community members have a wide range of expectations about appropriate teacher behavior.


In place of this research void, some schools around the world have adopted “no-touch” policies in efforts to protect employees from accusations of abuse.  Some schools have left the issue up to teachers without giving guidelines, in a nebulous ignorance that renders teachers and students vulnerable.  Other school communities have embraced touch and even encouraged it during school in many forms.


Whatever school policies exist, many teachers believe or are aware of the research that indicates appropriate touch is positive for child development (Johansson, Aberg, and Hedlin, 2021).  Nonetheless, a significant number of educators, especially male teachers, are apprehensive about touching in school (Clyde, 1994; Piper, 2014).  Following a number of high-profile cases in the media, many educators are fearful of abuse allegations.  Fear of touch creates a significant chasm between research and practice.  An international school with teachers from various cultures will have some teachers who are afraid to touch students, and others who are oblivious to the risks because of their cultural or educational history.  The ambivalence, discomfort, or unawareness that many educators have could be alleviated by a clear understanding of the community culture in addition to explicit school expectations and guidelines.  With such diverse teacher backgrounds, and due to the ease by which misunderstandings can occur, school leaders cannot afford to be unclear or neglect to have guidelines and policies about touch.


Depending on local regulations and the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in the area, many schools may have no choice but to return to temporary “no-touch” policies in efforts to limit transmission of the virus.  In this case, teachers and educators must find other ways to appropriately express their support and affection for students.  Alternatively, this may be an optimal time to reevaluate touch culture at school, and thus the following recommendations are provided to assist international schools which are reviewing guidelines or entering a phase where touch would not put students or teachers at risk for infection.


Developing Guidelines by Starting with Questions

School leaders can concurrently avoid the paranoia of “no-touch” policies and the danger of nonexistent guidelines by finding a middle ground where children are safeguarded and teachers supported with clear boundaries of touch in school.


For School Leaders

School leaders must assess touch culture from multiple lenses: a community lens, teacher lens, and student lens.  The following meta-questions should be considered:

What is the host culture?

What are common touch behaviors in the host culture?

What is the cultural makeup of the school?

What are accepted touch behaviors in the cultures represented at the school?

Are there any host-country laws about touch in schools?

What has been the culture of touch at the school in the past?  Have there been issues with it?

Are there already some written school guidelines for educator-student touch?  Is the focal point student wellbeing or avoiding allegations?

Is the community aware of these guidelines?  Are all staff aware of these guidelines?

Do you model appropriate touch behavior for the school community?


For Teachers and Staff

It is essential as part of the development of appropriate touch culture in school teachers and staff are involved and trained regularly.  Teacher turnover can be frequent, and they may come from diverse cultural environments and training.  From an individual teacher perspective, the following concepts should be explored:


Before the School Year Begins

What is your personal culture, and how is touch between adults and children viewed in that culture?

What is your personal experience with touch?

What are your beliefs about touch in school?

Do you know the policies and guidelines regarding touch at school?

Do your touch behaviors differ depending on the gender or culture of a child in the class?

What are your school touch behaviors, and are these done for the benefit of the student in mind?

How do you protect yourself from allegations and misunderstandings?

How can you mold your touch behaviors to fit the school cultural environment, with the student’s welfare at the forefront?


 After the School Year Begins

What is a child’s reaction to and perception of touch from you in various situations?

Does the child seek touch or avoid it?

What is the child’s caregiver’s perspective about touch?

Does the child have any sensitivities to touch, or additional touch needs (ie: sensory integration differences)?

In the Moment of a Potential Educator-Student Touch Situation

What is the school guideline?

Is touch appropriate for the context, and is it necessary?

Is this touch done in the best interest of the child?

How did the child react?


Educators remain weary and afraid of touching students (Piper, Garratt, and Taylor, 2013), therefore in addition to knowing what is inappropriate (i.e. child safeguarding policies), it may be even more important for teachers to receive training that encourages appropriate, supportive, culturally sensitive touch.  Generally, physical contact might be appropriate if it is used to assist in skill development (educative touch), is required for a child’s safety (assisting touch), occurs in an open environment, and occurs with the student’s permission whenever possible (Bergnehr and Cekaite, 2018; “Physical Contact with Children”).  A culturally sensitive approach requires a teacher to be emotionally available to accurately interpret the effect of their touching and respect student body autonomy.

As common as math and writing levels are to a child’s cumulative file, educators should also be aware of how children respond to comforting, assistive, or educative touch.  Much like it would be counterproductive to place a student in a math level group that is too high or too low, creating an unfitting touch environment for a student can be detrimental.  Touching one student in a specific way could have a positive effect, whereas touching another student in the same way could elicit negative emotions and have negative implications.


For Students


School culture and guidelines about touch would be incomplete without student social and emotional learning (SEL) opportunities regarding touch.  Even the youngest students can learn to recognize safe, unsafe, and uncomfortable touches.  Shortly after, they can recognize and verbalize which touches are unwanted and nonconsensual.  All these ideas taught within a multicultural lens encourages rich conversation and deep thinking about their personal experiences and preferences of touch.  Schools have a responsibility to empower students by allowing them to decide what touch is comfortable for them in which contexts.  Crucial opportunities are available in school settings for exploring and understanding preferences for touch.


Policy Essentials


The information elicited from the aforementioned questions and perspectives can allow a thoughtful formulation of touch guidelines and policies.  There is no one-size-fits-all list of guidelines or policies for touch at international schools.  Each school will differ in the details, but the following general guidelines can be a starting point to protect educators from allegations, and concurrently provide a comfortable environment for staff to render caring and beneficial touch to students at school (Hansen, 2007):

  • Limit touching to safe areas of the body (shoulders, hands, upper back)
  • Avoid being alone in a room with a student, and not with the door closed
  • Before touching students, be an observer – see how students interact with peers and other adults, and what their touch behaviors are and what they are comfortable with
  • Ask for permission whenever possible


These guidelines go hand in hand with child safeguarding policies, which further delineate social and sexual boundaries.  Touch guidelines and safeguarding policies have congruent principles – to care for and protect children.


Children with pervasive coordination or physical needs will need a higher degree of personal touch to complete daily activities, and this also should be indicated in school guidelines.  In activities where touch may be necessary for the safety or teaching of students (i.e. PE, demonstrations for some Arts), differences should also be indicated in school documents.


With the welfare and body autonomy of children as guiding points, school leaders have a responsibility to teachers and children to help the school develop a healthy and culturally sensitive culture around touch, imbuing a caring, nurturing environment.  Taking time to wade through the cultural complexities can provide clarity and comfort.  The costs for developing well-balanced policies and guidelines are in itself beneficial to the community:  thoughtful evaluation, honest and open discussion, and professional growth.


About the author

Dallin Bywater is an international school counselor on hiatus.  He has presented for parent and teacher workshops, and has published articles on a range of topics related to student and parent mental health.




Bergnehr, Disa and Cekaite, Asta. 2018.  “Adult-Initiated Touch and its Functions at    a

Swedish Preschool:  Controlling, Affectionate, Assisting and Educative Haptic

Conduct,” International Journal of Early Years Education, 26:3, 312-331,

DOI: 10.1080/09669760.2017.1414690


Blackwell, Patricia. 2000.  “The Influence of Touch on Child Development”, Infants &

     Young Children: July 2000 13:1, 25-39.


Clyde, M. 1994.  “Men in Early Childhood:  What Do Women Think About It?”  Paper

presented at the Association for Childhood Educational Study Conference, New

Orleans, LA.


DiBiase, Rosemarie and Jaime Gunnoe. 2004. “Gender and Culture Differences in

Touching Behavior,” The Journal of Social Psychology 144. 49-62. 10.3200/SOCP.



Dobson, S., Upadhyaya, S., Conyers, I., and Raghavan, R. 2002. “Touch in the Care of

People with Profound and Complex Needs:  A Review of the Literature,”  Journal of

     Learning Disabilities, 6:4, 351-62


Hansen, Jacqueline (2007). The Truth about Teaching and Touching, Childhood

Education, 83:3, 158-162, DOI: 10.1080/00094056.2007.10522901


Hart, S.  Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., and Lundy, B. 1998.  “Preschoolers’ Cognitive

Performance Improves Following Massage,” Early Child Development and Care,

143, 59-64.


Johansson, Caroline, Åberg, Magnus and Maria Hedlin. 2021. “Touch the Children, or

Please Don’t – Preschool Teachers’ Approach to Touch,” Scandinavian Journal of

     Educational Research, 65:2, 288-301, DOI: 10.1080/00313831.2019.1705893


Meyer, Erin. 2016. The Culture Map. New York, NY: PublicAffairs.


Owen, Pamela and Jonathan Gillentine. 2011. “Please touch the children: Appropriate

touch in the primary classroom,” Early Child Development and Care 181. 857-868.



“Physical Contact with Children.” Physical Contact with Children – Play by the Rules –

Making Sport inclusive, safe and fair. Accessed August 20, 2021. https://


Piper, H., Garratt, D., and Taylor, B. 2013. “Hands off! The practice and politics of touch

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Crusade,” Power and Education6, 229–240. doi: 10.2304/power.2014.6.3.229ehr


Why shouldn’t we consider modern languages as subject matter?

Isabelle Wolfe
Language Teacher, International School Aberdeen


As a French native and a teacher, I have heard the following sentence many times: “ I learnt French at school for 3 years and I can’t speak”. This gap between school-based language classes and actually learning how to speak is something that unfortunately is somewhat accepted. Why then is there so much discrepancy between language learning in the classroom and proficiency and communicative ability in real life?


I believe that the root of this dichotomy lies in the fact that very often languages are taught as subject matter and should not.


Indeed, language acquisition is different from learning other subjects. We have to treat language as a different kind of subject matter and therefore it should be treated differently than other subjects. History, science, maths and English are content courses whereby knowledge is taught, demonstrated and ultimately assessed and tested.


However, treating languages as subject matter can have very detrimental consequences for the learners. The growing trend of teaching languages in a comprehensible input setting stems from the view that language acquisition should be regarded as a unique subject.


1. Misled focus of the language acquisition course


By considering language as subject matter, the aim of the course is more focused on grades rather than looking at the students proficiency and ability. Subject matter tests focus more on measuring what students cannot do whereas language acquisition assessments should focus on the progress the students are making and proficiency outcomes. The motivation for the learners becomes intrinsic such as pleasing the parents or even the teacher rather than extrinsic which is for example acquiring the language in order to communicate. Dr Liam Printer wrote extensively on this aspect in his paper on motivation which can be found in the bibliography.


2. Consolidation of the myth about language learning rather than acquiring the language


Treating language as a subject matter perpetuates the myth that language learning is done by teaching, practicing, memorising and testing. Learning about the language should not be confused with acquiring the language. There needs to be a shift in seeing students acquire the language in order to to use it instead of learning about the language.


3. Language is not taught in a meaningful way


The proliferation of expensive textbooks and other resources, assessment packs, workbooks are driven by language acquisition seen as subject matter. When one stops treating language as subject matter, then we start questioning the existence of such textbooks. This is why we see the shift in teaching grammar more and more in the context of other meaningful activities rather than following the structure of a textbook and if for example the past is needed for a beginner student, then there are no constraints to introduce it at that stage, even briefly.


By regarding language acquisition as subject matter, we incur the risk of not achieving the main goal which is to communicate in a meaningful way. Communicative activities should be given priority and scripted dialogues or scenarios that students do not relate to should be avoided as they do not encourage proficiency. Consequently, language acquisition lessons should be planned backwards with the communicative goal first and what the assessment will consist of explained foremost.


Grant Boulanger, an advocate of comprehensible input, conducted a study in 2012 in which he compared students who have been taught traditionally and students who have followed a non-textbook approach. They tested a total of 356 students. 121 students were in a beginners class following a non-subject matter approach and 235 students were in classes taught with what can be described as traditional following methods adhering to a textbook and grammatical scope and sequence. The results showed that students who did not follow the traditional method based on content had a higher level of attainment than those who followed a textbook-based approach. The details of the data can be found here.


These results demonstrate that adjusting the curriculum to be more about the students rather than the page of the book they’re on has a positive impact on students’ achievements. Proficiency-based assessments can give us more data than many content-specific assessments throughout the year.


4. Educational inequity is encouraged


Treating language acquisition as subject matter fosters the idea that some students should learn language X and others language Y. Therefore, the myth that such language is more appropriate for high achievers and other languages are more accessible to the other students is encouraged by treating language acquisition based on subject matter and the attainment of grades.


These are some of the reasons why language acquisition classes should not be considered subject matter. However, it is important to also make sure that the element of “preciousness” does not get attached to the subject. Languages are specialist and unique courses but not special in the sense that not every single student can be successful and have access to them.


Finally, and surprisingly enough, one might think that administrators would be the main actors to initiate such a change in this mindset and not consider language acquisition as subject matter. However, more often than not, teachers are the actors who need to operate this shift. As teachers, most of us have been trained as subject matter teachers. We might even have learnt the language we are now teaching in a subject matter format. However, as educators, we need to implement this shift which is not always an easy process as teacher beliefs very often hinder this growth mindset.


What do you think about the points raised in this article? We’d love to hear your feedback.




Vanpatten, b., 2021. while we’re on the topic.


Grant Boulanger. 2021. A Nail in the Coffin Part 2 – CI Increases ACHIEVEMENT. [online]
(A Nail in the Coffin Part 2 – CI Increases ACHIEVEMENT, 2021)


ResearchGate. 2021. (PDF) Student perceptions on the motivational pull of Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS): a self-determination theory perspective.



Isabelle Wolfe is the language subject leader at the International School of Aberdeen.  She teaches French in Middle and High school as well as the French Mother Tongue programme to our French native students. Prior to teaching at ISA, Isabelle taught in England, Australia, and Egypt.

It’s All About Relationships

Promotional article from The MARIO Framework

Graeme Scott
Executive Chairperson, The MARIO Framework


We’ve had Baby Boomers, then Generation X. We’ve had Millennials, Gen Y, Gen Y-not, and now Generation Alpha. Many apparent differences have been identified between each of these generations, some of them have substance while others will be consigned to the fiction sections of our libraries. We often seek to identify the differences between each generation, but what about the elements that unite us? I was born in 1964, which makes me a Baby Boomer…but only just.  I was born on 29th of February to be exact, which was a source of endless fun and elementary mathematics for the ten-year-old children I taught, but it is now used by colleagues to poke fun at my real age. “Wow, even your real age divided by four is getting big now!” The most important things in my life are not restricted to Baby Boomers but are common across all generations.  For example, the relationships we all develop throughout our lives are so precious to all generations and all cultures. This became most apparent during Covid-19 when many of us were restricted to an online relationship with those we hold most dear.  For those of us living overseas, our exciting international lives were significantly impacted by the challenges we faced when attempting to travel to see loved ones.  Many of us are still facing these difficulties and some, like myself, decided that this might be an appropriate time to return to home base to be within touching distance of family, at least for a while.


Early Childhood

From the very beginning, the bonding between baby and parents is foundational and critical in the projection for their future mental health and resilience. Anecdotally, we are familiar with testimony from parents who experience an unusually powerful sensation at the moment of their child’s birth. They speak of being willing to sacrifice anything for this tiny human that just entered the world. Life is changed forever at that second, and for the child, these relationships are the first of many that will shape their trajectory and their life.  From early games such as peek-a-boo, to the security-seeking grab of mum or dad’s leg when faced with something or someone strange, the bond between child and parent is critical.  Starting nursery or kindergarten for the first time and leaving parents can therefore be traumatic for some children.  The shift from being the sole focus of attention at home, to being one child amongst many, where care and communication is divided multiple ways, is understandably difficult to manage for many children.  Fortunately, early childhood practitioners are highly skilled and understand the importance of regular one-to-one conversations with every child in their class.


Relationships at School

As we pass the early childhood stage and head to school, relationships are again instrumental in our flourishing. Having moved around the world several times with children in tow, I know how important relationships are to my kids.  Our internationally mobile students are constantly making friendships, only to see them reduced to an online version of themselves when either they or their friends move on to different locations around the globe.  For new students, what actually happens in the classroom can be less of a concern to them as it is a relatively controlled environment.  However, what happens at break time and what happens in the lunch hall can be moments of real stress and anxiety.  Who will play with me?  Will anyone sit with me to eat?  Who can I tag along with, and will I be viewed as a burden?  These are real questions children wrestle with as they strive to fit into their new learning environment.


I was one of those students who, even at the age of 15, spent the last part of the lesson before lunch strategising about where I would sit in the cafeteria, what I might say and to whom.  My favourite teachers and those I learned most from were always those that invested in a relationship with me that was deeper than the norm. Outside of lessons, they spent time with me talking about sport, home life and television (yes they did exist then!). Sadly, the inverse is also true. Now at the age of 57, the subject areas I still struggle in correspond with those teachers who didn’t seem particularly bothered whether I turned up or not.  Relationships are built on trust and can also be fractured by a perceived loss of trust.


Research demonstrates that one-to-one conversations strengthen students’ cognitive processing and facilitate behavioral modelling.  They also support the fostering of a growth mindset, provide real-world meaning and contextualisation, and build a positive student-teacher relationship.  However, the challenge of constructing such conversations on a regular basis with all students is not to be underestimated.




At The MARIO Framework, we recognise the importance of building trusting relationships on a deeper level with students. We do this through powerfully constructed one-to-one learning conversations. Even a five-to-seven-minute conversation, carefully designed, can be a critical catalyst for learning and wellbeing.


MARIO is an acronym for Measurable; Ambitious; Research-informed; Innovative; One-to-One learning centered.  Although the framework is appropriate for all students and provides them with the tools they need to become self-directed learners, we currently work predominantly with students who have diverse learning needs. Our approach has had startling results; to be precise, an effect size of 0.91 on student learning, measured through a 6-year retrospective study.


Everything we do at MARIO is based on a huge database of research and evidence because we believe that with the limited time we have to make a difference, we need to ensure every minute counts.  Our MARIO educators have seen the approach work extremely well with students in a wide range of schools, but to have our principles backed by a veritable mountain of research is extremely reassuring. It allows us to build further relationships of trust, this time with our stakeholders.


There are three elements to the MARIO Framework.  Free research summaries are provided – we invite you to head over to our website and sign up for ‘The MARIO Memos.’ We also offer cutting-edge professional development through a range of flexible courses, the gold standard being the MARIO Educator Certification. This highly successful and robust course, already completed by teachers in almost 20 countries, can be taken with a cohort over a period of eleven weeks or can be accessed asynchronously, pacing out one’s learning over as long as a year. The third piece in the MARIO suite is an innovative and unique software program that connects learning support teachers, mainstream subject or class teachers, parents, and school leaders with the student in the very center of these supportive relationships.


A Unique Software Solution

The ‘MARIO for ME’ software will not only enable students to connect with those teachers who can help them, it will also take care of compliance and accreditation needs, whilst promoting school-wide professional growth and innovation. The software makes the IEP process more meaningful, while reducing the paperwork burden for educators. Schools will gain valuable information about what is happening in students’ classes and will be able to quickly and easily monitor and share their achievements and progress in academic and social-emotional learning.  It will connect students to all those who are in a position to support them, and is therefore an extension of the relationships that matter most.


Educators, whatever generation they belong to, find commonality in a desire to develop relationships of trust within learning communities, and in particular, with our students. The vision of The MARIO Framework states, ‘Empowering ALL students to flourish as self-directed learners.’ However, before our students can be empowered, we need to connect with them in a meaningful way, with real empathy.  We then work with students to identify a focus for powerful 1:1 learning conversations, before by activating them leveraging the highest-impact teaching strategies.  Only then can they be truly empowered.  The MARIO Framework supports students in moving purposefully through these stages, on their journey towards self-direction.  Learn more about how you and your school can be part of the MARIO movement.  Please get in touch with me or check our website





Graeme Scott has 37 years of experience in education, with 26 of these in leadership positions in Hong Kong, Dubai, The Hague and Bangkok. He is also an accomplished keynote speaker and an educational consultant. Graeme’s areas of expertise include a deep understanding of the learning process, school leadership and the development of organisational culture.

Graeme has been Head of an outstanding UK state school and has also worked as Principal at the International School of The Hague, in the Netherlands for seven years, followed by six years at the International School Bangkok. His most recent role was as Founding Director of Fairgreen International School, the Middle East’s first fully sustainable IB school. His roles now include Executive Chairman of The Mario Framework, an organisation that supports students with specific learning needs in becoming self-directed learners.

Struggles and Hurdles: Ending the Silence

Eleni Armaou, Student Oriented Services (SOS) and Additional Learning Needs (ALN) Coordinator
Metropolitan School of Frankfurt

We all struggle at some point in our lives, either for professional or personal, family, academic or other reasons. The pandemic has exacerbated the need to be resilient, to stand up after you fall, but such things are easier said than done! So what is the first, initial step we need to take? Do we just stay silent and everything will be OK? Do we need to speak up? If we speak up and voice our concerns, will we face the fear of stigma? Most psychology professionals, counsellors and psy-educational specialists in the areas of Learning Support, Psychological Support and Personal Coaching name the first crucial step: Name your feelings, put them into words, categorise them, analyse them, as by doing this, although you are far from finding a solution, you are on the first square of gaining control. When you know something, when you are aware of the hurdles and struggles and can identify them, here it is: you have moved to square two!

NAMI.ORG has a variety of helpful resources for students, families, and adults who are trying to tell the difference between what expected behaviors are and what might be the signs of a mental illness isn’t always easy.

There’s no easy test that can let someone know if there is mental illness or if actions and thoughts might be typical behaviors of a person or the result of a physical illness. Each illness has its own symptoms, but common signs of mental illness in adults and adolescents can include the following:

● Excessive worrying or fear

● Feeling excessively sad or low

● Confused thinking or problems concentrating and learning

● Extreme mood changes, including uncontrollable “highs” or feelings of euphoria

● Prolonged or strong feelings of irritability or anger

● Avoiding friends and social activities

● Difficulties understanding or relating to other people

● Changes in sleeping habits or feeling tired and low energy

● Changes in eating habits such as increased hunger or lack of appetite

● Changes in sex drive

● Difficulty perceiving reality (delusions or hallucinations, in which a person experiences and senses things that don’t exist in objective reality)

● Inability to perceive changes in one’s own feelings, behavior or personality (”lack of insight” or anosognosia)

● Overuse of substances like alcohol or drugs

● Multiple physical ailments without obvious causes (such as headaches, stomach aches, vague and ongoing “aches and pains”)

● Thinking about suicide

● Inability to carry out daily activities or handle daily problems and stress

● An intense fear of weight gain or concern with appearance Mental health conditions can also begin to develop in young children. Because they’re still learning how to identify and talk about thoughts and emotions, their most obvious symptoms are behavioral. Symptoms in children may include the following:

● Changes in school performance

● Excessive worry or anxiety, for instance fighting to avoid bed or school

● Hyperactive behaviour

● Frequent nightmares

● Frequent disobedience or aggression

● Frequent temper tantrums

Where To Get Help

Don’t be afraid to reach out if you or someone you know needs help. Learning all you can about mental health is an important first step.

Reach out to your health insurance, primary care doctor or state/county mental health authority for more resources.

Resource: Mental Illness: Warning Signs and Symptoms

Most Importantly, reach out to your ECIS school Support teams, your pastoral officers, your Learning Support specialists and your School Counsellors in order to voice your concerns.

Our SEN/LS SIG is happy to help and you can participate in our webinars on mental health support and mindfulness! Our Next SEN/LS SIG event:  Click here to learn more


What do you think about the points raised in this post? We’d love to have your thoughts below.





Eleni Armaou studied Psychology, Pedagogy and Philosophy ( major in Educational  Psychology) and holds a MA in Special Educational Needs from the University of Leeds, in the UK. She has worked in IB Schools in Istanbul, Stuttgart, and Frankfurt and is now the SOS and ALN Coordinator at the Metropolitan School of Frankfurt.

Eleni is passionate about AI, Robotics, Space Travel, Quantum Physics as well as Human Psychology, Inclusive Education, Leadership and Management Studies, Negotiation Skills, and Conflict Resolution.

She is a Member of ECIS SEN/Learning Support SIG. Visit the website here.

Personal Website

Modern-day boarding

By Stonehill International School, Bangalore


Boarding school can teach children the essential skills they need to succeed in life.

Education has been modernised through technology, innovative infrastructure and progressive pedagogy. In this context, boarding schools too have changed dramatically over the last few years. Gone are the traditional dormitory days or regimental routines. Today, boarding schools are friendly and warm, with modern facilities for both studying and living. The learning never stops in a boarding school environment. Lessons go beyond the walls of the classroom to include social skills and life skills like independence, self-confidence, acceptance of differences and more. Top boarding schools like Stonehill International School in Bangalore, aim for the holistic development of the student rather than just purely focusing on academics.


Stonehill is a modern-day and boarding school, with a contemporary and adaptive programme, where students are supported, engaged, challenged, and respected as individuals. The boarding staff at Stonehill are house parents and dedicated teachers who provide a high standard of field and academic support.


The following are five skills that boarding life inculcates in your child:


1. Ability to build friendships


Stonehill Boarding is a diverse environment where children from different backgrounds meet and interact. They form great friendships with their peers, get guidance and academic support from each other. It is an opportunity for children of different ages and cultures to connect, creating a bond for life. When a community of your peers surround you, coping with the ebb and flow of life is easier. Glen Johnson, Head of Boarding at Stonehill International School, with more than 30 years of experience of having worked in various boarding schools across India, says, “I have seen the positive effect boarding life at Stonehill has on students. They experience less stress and frustration in this environment. I have also seen improvement in student grades, an increase in motivation and a decline in behavioural issues.”




2. Boarders learn to be independent and responsible

Children become more independent within a broader community environment, building up confidence in their ability to manage their schoolwork, stay healthy and thrive in the ‘real world’. In a contemporary boarding environment like Stonehill Boarding, students learn to be responsible for themselves. They learn time management skills and become self-reliant and independent.



3. Cultivating a lifelong desire to learn through academics and outdoor opportunities

Weekends are a time to unwind and students can choose from the myriad extracurricular activities. Glen Johnson, Head of Stonehill Boarding, says, “At Stonehill Boarding, keeping in mind the IB philosophy, we initiate and plan regular outdoor activities. These activities encourage children to ask questions and find answers through research so they cultivate a lifelong desire to learn.”

Additionally, the School has a multi-purpose sports hall, basketball courts, a swimming pool, volleyball, tennis and badminton courts, a football and cricket field and horse riding facilities.

A crucial part of the educational journey is creating an environment to facilitate it. At    Stonehill Boarding, the availability of school amenities for use at all times allows students to prepare for their future.



4. Boarders develop strong work ethics

The boarding at Stonehill International School has a well-deserved reputation for excellence that encourages disciplined work and study habits. This is attributed to the outstanding professionalism and care of the house parents. They are committed to motivating the students to fulfil their academic and personal potential.

Through supervised study sessions, accessible offices, and open-door policies, students gain close access to readily available support from the non-resident tutors. With teachers as role-models, it is easier for students to become invested in their work.

Stonehill Boarders often find great friendships in their house parents who provide continuous support to them. Not only do they guide them on managing their studies, but also with social dynamics. They forge a healthy foundational support system, creating a home away from home!



5. Boarding school promotes acceptance and values diversity



Stonehill International Boarding attracts students from all over the world. They host a diverse range of international and domestic students who share meals, rooms, and classes – fostering a close bond that transcends geographical and cultural differences. As students share personal stories, cultural insights, and new experiences with each other, they learn to see beyond categories of difference – a fundamental lesson they take with them for years to come.

Stonehill International School is an International Baccalaureate (IB) Authorised World School, accredited by the Council of International Schools (CIS) and the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC). The School is a member of the Australian Boarding Schools Association (ABSA) an organization that promotes the interests of boarding schools worldwide, facilitating the professional development of staff and advancing excellent practice among schools.

The boarding houses at Stonehill are comfortable and homelike, with modern facilities and contemporary design. Boarding can never replace home, but Stonehill Boarding offers the next best thing – a home away from home.

Artificial Intelligence in Education: The Big Picture



The big picture – Ai evolution in context

AI didn’t come into existence out of the blue. It will also not disappear all of a sudden. It is the natural evolution of progress – it is the next stage in the industrial revolution.


The first Industrial Revolution happened between 1750-1870 (120 years). The most notable invention during the period was the steam engine. Main characteristics : mechanization, birth of industry, agriculture to be replaced as main economic activity.


The second Industrial Revolution took place between 1870-1950 (80 years). The most notable invention was the automobile. Main characteristics : basic technological advancements – electricity (gas/oil), steel, chemicals, telegraph / telephone.


The 3rd Industrial Revolution happened between 1950-2000 (50 years). The most notable invention during the period was the computers. Main characteristics : more technological advancements – industrial robots, electronics, telecommunications, nuclear energy.


The 4th Industrial Revolution takes place as we speak. It started in 2000. Nobody knows how long it will last, but the cycles of each stage are shorter and shorter. 120-80-50 years… Most likely this stage will last less than 50 years. The most notable invention during the current period is the internet. Main characteristics : emphasis on digitization – powerful computers, virtual reality.


The 5th Industrial Revolution will follow naturally. The most notable invention will be Artificial Intelligence. AI/ML will become widespread and a part of everyday life on so many levels, we can’t even imagine today. The only question is when will this new era start, if it hasn’t started already…



AI is a new phase in progress – probably the next industrial revolution


Industrial robots meant progress by increasing productivity in factories – blue collar workers, performing easy, repetitive tasks were replaced by machines / robots. AI technology means progress by replacing more complex jobs which require human capabilities such as : understanding, reasoning, planning, communication, perception. But this does not mean humans are in danger! This means humans can now focus on more creative tasks which can’t be performed by computers/robots/AI.


AI needs data to work. Data can be acquired by feeding it into the AI system (file import), by integrating the AI with other software or by the AI system itself when it interacts with the world (e.g. visual perception or speech recognition). Once the AI has data, it can perform various intelligent actions mentioned above (planning, perception, etc). AI systems assess the available information and then take the most sensible action to achieve a stated goal (e.g. planning a trip from San Francisco to New York).


Progress means that inevitably the jobs which require only the 5 capabilities mentioned above will be lost to automation. Are schools still preparing students for soon-to-be-obsolete jobs ? As mentioned in the first article, later down the road in our series of articles on AI in education we will focus on how students can prevent preparing themselves for jobs which are very likely to be lost to automation by the time they will retire from the workforce. This will reduce the need for professional reconversion later in life and will avoid various emotional situations associated with unemployment.



This article is provided by HEDKY-AI – Linking courses to careers. More than 90% of students using HEDKY-AI choose the right career – according to their talents. HEDKY-AI monitors student skill development from age 3 to graduation and beyond. Using HEDKY-AI’s “Skill passport”, teachers, schools and parents can see very early in a student’s life towards which type of career they are heading to, according to their choices and results in curricular courses and extracurricular activities. If they head towards a job which is likely to be lost by automation, parents would most likely want to know this as early as possible in order to change their career goal.


To learn more about HEDKY-AI, please visit or get in touch with us by email at hedky(at)


Incorporating Student Voice in the Classroom

Chrissy Talbot
General Education Teacher

Providing students with a voice is an important tool in creating an engaging classroom environment. As an elementary teacher, I’ve noticed that when my students feel that their own voice is valued they are often more willing to take academic risks. Below I’ve listed three practical ways you can provide even your youngest students with an opportunity to have a voice in their own education.


1) Morning Meetings & Entrance Tickets:

One way to provide students with a voice is by giving them a platform to express themselves. This can come in multiple forms. You can set up a morning meeting where students have the opportunity to discuss things they are feeling or events happening outside of school. A safe space for students to engage in honest conversation should never be underestimated. Or, if you want something less time-consuming, you can create Google Forms or entrance tickets that ask students to suggest topics for class discussion or their thoughts and opinions on the curriculum. Of course, you can modify these ideas to meet your specific grade level. Starting your day off with an opportunity for students to have a voice sets a tone that their opinions and thoughts matter in your classroom. They are valued.


2) Choice in Projects: 

Student voice can also come in the form of choice. This might mean giving students the opportunity to express what they have learned through different mediums. Would they rather make a diorama of an ocean habitat or create a video complete with sound effects and narration? Sometimes it can be hard as the teacher to release some control to our students but by doing so, we are showing our students that we trust them and that we accept them as individuals who may not always learn the same way. You cannot have student voice without student choice.


3) Student Surveys:

Lastly, you can promote student voice simply by asking for it. Give students an opportunity to drive your instruction and tell you how they learn best. Student surveys at the beginning of the year are helpful to get an understanding of how our students learn. We can then decide if we need more group projects or technology or visuals in the way we deliver instruction. But the surveys shouldn’t stop in the fall. We need to continue to ask our students for feedback. Would students like to see more videos or do more hands-on experiments? Assessments give us a lot of information about how much a student has learned but they don’t give us insight on the student’s learning experience. I believe learning experiences should count for something because, after all, aren’t we trying to foster a love of learning in our students? I think the best way to do this is to give the students a voice continuously in the way we deliver our instruction and the way we assess our students.


These are just a few strategies you can employ in your classroom to help lift up your students’ voices and make them feel heard.  Sometimes it’s easy to overlook or forget about the importance of this work but it’s so important for building long-term relationships with our students. We owe it to our students to show them that their thoughts are valued.


To learn more about Social-Emotional Learning and access additional resources to support a SEL environment, click here.


This article was originally published by Savvas:


What do you think about the points raised in this article? We’d love to hear your feedback.



Chrissy Talbot

“My name is Chrissy and I am a creative, hard-working, and passionate teacher. I’ve been teaching second grade for the past four years on Long Island, New York. I’m currently the general education teacher in an inclusive classroom environment, and I LOVE it! I received my BA in Elementary Education from Stonehill College in Massachusetts and later earned my Masters in TESOL from Touro College in New York. When I’m not lesson planning or making anchor charts for my kiddos, I am reading books on my couch, planning my latest travel adventure, or spending time with my friends and family.”

Pygmalion and Quantum Theory: When you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change

Eleni Armaou, Student Oriented Services (SOS) and Additional Learning Needs (ALN) Coordinator
Metropolitan School of Frankfurt

 Image Source


It is an axiom in Human Psychology, a known fact, albeit not easily perceptible, an unwritten law, which you study the minute you step your feet into a university amphitheatre of a Psychology faculty: your perception informs the way you look at things, defines their meaning and subsequently shapes your actions or reactions.


As an educator I found self-observation enlightening and I started observing myself: my mood, my underlying assumptions, my fears and hopes and how they can fundamentally change my teaching practice during the instructional moment. If I am happy, I see happiness everywhere, if I am hopeful, I recognise it in the eyes of students, if I strive for change and innovation, they will follow suit. It is as if everyone feeds off each other’s mood, and yet this tiny grain of truth is usually overlooked, especially in moments of crisis. How does this manifestation of  rule become universal?


On a larger scale, this of the universe, it has long been ( much longer than we think) theorised that the atoms do not possibly have an infinite and given state but rather are in a constant status of Superposition, therefore creating infinite versions of themselves and subsequently of reality. Multiple versions of reality means, essentially, that there is a multiverse.

And of course, the observer’s application of observation, an act, changes the observed object. This theory echoes the theory of Shroedinger’s cat ( the cat is both alive and dead in the box) as well as similar theories in Psychology, Humanities and of course Arts.


Moving away from subatomic and macroscopic systems, and researching in the field of Educational Studies, we first encounter aspects of the above mentioned theory in the famous book by R. Rosenthal Pygmalion in the Classroom (1968). In his introduction, Rosenthal makes a special reference to Bernard Shaw’s (1913) play by providing a fragment of the protagonist’s Eliza Doolittle monologue:


You see, really and truly, apart from the things anyone can pick up ( the dressing and the proper way of speaking, and so on), the difference between a lady and a girl is not how she behaves but how she is treated. I  shall always be a flower girl to Professor Higgins, because he always treats me as a flower girl, and always will; but I know that I can be a lady to you, because you always treat me as a lady, and always will.


In a series of experiments which Rosenthal mentions in his book, the mechanism of self-fulfilling prophecy is apparent and in play with all factors in human relationships, but particularly, in the dual relationship of learner-educators and that, if our expectation is that a learner of a given intelligence ( term is outdated, this comes from a 1968 book) will not respond creatively to a task which confronts him, and especially if we make this expectation known to the learner, the probability is that he will respond creatively is very much reduced.


This is a huge life ( and teaching ) lesson for teachers: what you think is what you will create.



  1. Rosenthal, R., Jacobson, L. Pygmalion in the classroom. Urban Rev 3, 16–20 (1968).


What do you think about the points raised in this article? We’d love to have your thoughts below.





Eleni Armaou studied Psychology, Pedagogy and Philosophy ( major in Educational  Psychology) and holds a MA in Special Educational Needs from the University of Leeds, in the UK. She has worked in IB Schools in Istanbul, Stuttgart, and Frankfurt and is now the SOS and ALN Coordinator at the Metropolitan School of Frankfurt.

Eleni is passionate about AI, Robotics, Space Travel, Quantum Physics as well as Human Psychology, Inclusive Education, Leadership and Management Studies, Negotiation Skills, and Conflict Resolution.

She is a Member of ECIS SEN/Learning Support SIG.